Finite and non-finite verbs
I- Finite verbs
Ex: I to read this novel.
He watching that film on TV.
I singing a song.
Finite verbs: want, enjoyed, saw
Non finite verbs: to read (infinitive)
watching (gerund), singing (present participle)
II- Non-finite verbs
1. Infinitive: to read, to fly, to understand
a) Used as Nouns
to read novels. (Object)
My hobby is what to do. He told me to read. There is nothing to read novels. He stayed home read novels. He may do homework carefully. Do you work hard for the exam.
Special verbs: Can, May, Must and Auxiliary: Do
Ex: You had better stay here.
One cannot but Verbs of perception and MAKE, HELP, HAVE, LET (with Bare infinitive) & FIND, KEEP, LEAVE, SET,
START, GET, SEND, TAKE (with present participles).
Ex: I saw him sing(ing) a new song.
I made him play in the room.
He had us sleeping under a tree. We mustn’t keep them waiting outside. This set me oing it again!
3. Gerund (V+ing) may be used as a noun
Ex: going swimming playing reading
Ex: reading books. (Complement)
He enjoys writing a letter is old.
* Past participles V+ed /3 (passive)
Ex: The letter Writing the letters, Nam felt tired.
He came here killing three people. (Result)
A- VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
|Meaning||reading but my sister prefers walking. (habit)
Ex: He said: "Do come with me!" It was impossible to refuse invitations.
Ex: to look after children.
like to pay her a visit at least once a month. (I think it right or sensible to visit her)
I Would you like to play tennis with me? Yes, I’d like to.
But: I dislike wearing perfume.
c) I didsaying it. (I said it, unwillingly)
I didto say it. (I didn’t say it because it didn’t seem right or sensible)
* LOVE - HATE - PREFER
Ex: I staring/ to stare at the sky. (no difference)
But: I Would you like to have lunch now, or prefer to wait.
Ex: Can I give you a lift? No, thanks. I stopped work stopped smoking to work.
Ex: I can’t went on talking till after midnight.
Ex: After approving the agenda we try to overcome your shyness. (make an effort)
Ex: regret leaving (past action) the firm after 20 years.
Ex: I regret to say "no" to you. (Present or future action)
Ex: I never forget to post (future) your letter.
Ex: I remember (= not to forget) began to work/working.
Ex: He discontinue (paying) her weekly visits.
Ex: She never to complain/complaining about the price.
But: I began to wonder if I had left it on the bus.
Ex: I can’t bear starting to rain. I was beginning to understand/see/ realize why he acted as he did.
Ex: I began to understand what he really wanted.
* INTEND = MEAN / PROPOSE / AGREE TO
a) Intend = mean
Ex: I propose to start tomorrow.
b) Ex: Do you iintend to go on doing what you are doing at the moment?
Ex: Do you intend him propose (= suggest) propose waiting till the police get here.
Ex: The transport strike having to walk to work every day.
Ex: He’s determined to get a seat even if it standing in a queue all night.
d) He leaving early on Friday. =/= He Wouldn’t agree to my leaving.
* HAVE FUN / TROUBLE / DIFFICULTY/ A GOOD (HARD / DIFFICULT) TIME
Ex: I had fun / a good (hard / difficult) time playing volleyball.
* SPEND/WASTE + expression of time or money + V-ing
Ex: Sam studying.
Ex: I watching TV.
* Two actions happening at the same time. (Verbs: sit, stand, lie..)
Ex: She writing a letter.
Ex: I wondering what to do next.
Ex: He reading a novel.
* FIND /CATCH + (pro) noun + V-ing
Ex: When I walked into my office, I using my telephone.
When I walked into my office, I looking through my desk drawer.
* Other cases
a) He is joking to me. I can’t stand (bear) listening to him for an hour
c) Itadvising him.
d) There’s no doing such a thing.
e) Would you mind opening the door, please ?
f) I am used to staying up late. But I used to go to bed early.
g) I am busy doing my homework now.
h) He never says anything that is worth listening to.
i) His parents is looking forward to hearing from him.